Famous People


Rest in Peace my Beloved Steve Jobs

Apple Inc co-founder and former CEO Steve Jobs, one of the greatest American CEOs, died on Wednesday at the age of 56. He had been suffering cancer and other health issues.

Although he is just one year older than Bill Gates of Microsoft, Steve was never lucky enough. He had been battling cancer and health issues until his death.

Following is Steve’s biography in brief from wikipedia:

Jobs was born in San Francisco and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs (née Hagopian) of Mountain View, California, who named him Steven Paul. Paul and Clara later adopted a daughter, whom they named Patti. Jobs’ biological parents – Abdulfattah John Jandali, a Syrian Muslim graduate student from Homs who later became a political science professor and Joanne Simpson (née Schieble), an American graduate student who went on to become a speech language pathologist – eventually married. Together, they gave birth to and raised Jobs’ biological sister, novelist Mona Simpson.

Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California. He frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto, California and was later hired there, working with Steve Wozniak as a summer employee. Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Although he dropped out after only one semester, he continued auditing classes at Reed, while sleeping on the floor in friends’ rooms, returning Coke bottles for food money, and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. Jobs later said, “If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.”

In autumn 1974, Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak. He took a job as a technician at Atari, a manufacturer of popular video games, with the primary intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India.

Jobs then traveled to India to visit the Neem Karoli Baba at his Kainchi Ashram with a Reed College friend (and, later, the first Apple employee), Daniel Kottke, in search of spiritual enlightenment. He came back a Buddhist with his head shaved and wearing traditional Indian clothing. During this time, Jobs experimented with psychedelics, calling his LSD experiences “one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life”. He has said that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking.

Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board for the game Breakout. According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, Atari had offered $100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little interest or knowledge in circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari, Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. At the time, Jobs told Wozniak that Atari had only given them $700 (instead of the actual $5,000) and that Wozniak’s share was thus $350.

Read full article about Steve Jobs on Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs

After having been busy which makes me away from my blog for a long time, today, I felt I wanted to make a collection of my beloved geeks who have changed the way I (and all of us) live. Some geeks may appear first or last in my collection, but it doesn’t necessarily mean they are ranked first nor last. I love them all.

Geeks who have changed the way we live.

As in my disclaimer, it is to be noticed that these individuals who appear here in my list are not necessarily the single founders of their respective firms/products. They may be co-founders. The reason why I listed only these people and not their co-founders was because these are at least representatives of those in their team. Also, it was because they are commonly known by the public; there is no big deal. There still lovely geeks who are not listed here, but they are all in my heart.

It is also to be noticed that they are not just founders of the firms/products I mentioned in the list. In fact they founded a lot more than just what I mentioned. I just listed their most known firms/product they founded.

Note: Some founders here might have left the firms/products.

Enjoy loving them and have a nice weekend.

MPS

People with High IQ scores are not always successful in lives. However, it shows you how smart you are. At the end of this article is the link which after clicking will bring you to a site for free IQ test. I already took it, and I am just one among the average people with the score of 105. Anyway, if your English is not your native language, then don’t be disappointed because you may have some language difficulties affecting your scoring. Try it first.

THE LIVING PEOPLE WITH THE HIGHEST IQS ON RECORD

NAME IQ SCORE TITLE Nationality
Kim Ung-yong 210 Physicist / Engineer Korean
Christopher Michael Langan 195 Bouncer American
Philip Emeagwali 190 Engineer Igbo Nigerian
Garry Kasparov 190 World Chess Champion Russian
Marilyn Vos Savant 186 Author American
James Woods 180 Actor American
John H. Sununu 180 Politician American
Benjamin Netanyahu 180 Prime Minister Israeli
Andrew Wiles 170 Mathematician Briton
Judith Polgar 170 World Chess Champion Hungarian
Robert Byrne 170 Chess Grandmaster American
Bobby Fischer 167 World Chess Champion American
Stephen W. Hawking 160 Mathematician / Physicist Briton
Paul Allen 160 Microsoft Founder American
Sharon Stone 154 Actress American

SEE the Chart Below for Categories of IQ Scores and How the scores tell.


Intelligence Interval Cognitive Designation
40 – 54 Severely challenged (Less than 1% of test takers)
55 – 69 Challenged (2.3% of test takers)
70 – 84 Below average
85 – 114 Average (68% of test takers)
115 – 129 Above average
130 – 144 Gifted (2.3% of test takers)
145 – 159 Genius (Less than 1% of test takers)
160 – 175 Extraordinary genius

Take the IQ TEST FOR FREE NOW: http://www.free-iqtest.net/

Co-founders Larry Page, president of Products, and Sergey Brin, president of Technology, brought Google to life in September 1998. Since then, the company has grown to more than 10,000 employees worldwide, with a management team that represents some of the most experienced technology professionals in the industry. Eric Schmidt joined Google as chairman and chief executive officer in 2001.

Executive Management Group

Eric Schmidt
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer

Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin recruited Eric Schmidt from Novell, where he led that company’s strategic planning, management and technology development as chairman and CEO. Since coming to Google in 2001, Eric has focused on building the corporate infrastructure needed to maintain Google’s rapid growth as a company and on ensuring that quality remains high while product development cycle times are kept to a minimum. Along with Larry and Sergey, Eric shares responsibility for Google’s day-to-day operations. Eric’s Novell experience culminated a 20-year record of achievement as an Internet strategist, entrepreneur and developer of great technologies. His well-seasoned perspective perfectly complements Google’s needs as a young and rapidly growing search engine with a unique corporate culture.

Prior to his appointment at Novell, Eric was chief technology officer and corporate executive officer at Sun Microsystems, Inc., where he led the development of Java, Sun’s platform-independent programming technology, and defined Sun’s Internet software strategy. Before joining Sun in 1983, he was a member of the research staff at the Computer Science Lab at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), and held positions at Bell Laboratories and Zilog. Eric has a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University, and a master’s and Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley. In 2006, Eric was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, which recognized his work on “the development of strategies for the world’s most successful Internet search engine company.” Eric was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences as a Fellow in 2007. He is also chairman of the board of directors for the New America Foundation.


Larry Page
Co-Founder & President, Products

Larry Page was Google’s founding CEO and grew the company to more than 200 employees and profitability before moving into his role as president of products in April 2001. He continues to share responsibility for Google’s day-to-day operations with Eric Schmidt and Sergey Brin.

The son of Michigan State University computer science professor Dr. Carl Victor Page, Larry’s love of computers began at age six. While following in his father’s footsteps in academics, he became an honors graduate from the University of Michigan, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in engineering, with a concentration on computer engineering. During his time in Ann Arbor, Larry built an inkjet printer out of Lego™ bricks.

While in the Ph.D. program in computer science at Stanford University, Larry met Sergey Brin, and together they developed and ran Google, which began operating in 1998. Larry went on leave from Stanford after earning his master’s degree.

In 2002, Larry was named a World Economic Forum Global Leader for Tomorrow. He is a member of the National Advisory Committee (NAC) of the University of Michigan College of Engineering, and together with co-founder Sergey Brin, Larry was honored with the Marconi Prize in 2004. He is a trustee on the board of the X PRIZE, and was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2004.


Sergey Brin
Co-Founder & President, Technology

Sergey Brin, a native of Moscow, received a bachelor of science degree with honors in mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at College Park. He is currently on leave from the Ph.D. program in computer science at Stanford University, where he received his master’s degree. Sergey is a recipient of a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship as well as an honorary MBA from Instituto de Empresa. It was at Stanford where he met Larry Page and worked on the project that became Google. Together they founded Google Inc. in 1998, and Sergey continues to share responsibility for day-to-day operations with Larry Page and Eric Schmidt.

Sergey’s research interests include search engines, information extraction from unstructured sources, and data mining of large text collections and scientific data. He has published more than a dozen academic papers, including Extracting Patterns and Relations from the World Wide Web; Dynamic Data Mining: A New Architecture for Data with High Dimensionality, which he published with Larry Page; Scalable Techniques for Mining Casual Structures; Dynamic Itemset Counting and Implication Rules for Market Basket Data; and Beyond Market Baskets: Generalizing Association Rules to Correlations.

Sergey has been a featured speaker at several international academic, business and technology forums, including the World Economic Forum and the Technology, Entertainment and Design Conference. He has shared his views on the technology industry and the future of search on the Charlie Rose Show, CNBC, and CNNfn. In 2004, he and Larry Page were named “Persons of the Week” by ABC World News Tonight.


Laszlo Bock
Vice President, People Operations

Laszlo Bock leads Google’s people function globally, which includes all areas related to the attraction, development and retention of “Googlers.”

Laszlo joined Google from the General Electric Company, where most recently he was a vice president of human resources within GE Capital Solutions. He had earlier served as vice president of compensation and benefits for GE Commercial Equipment Financing. Before GE, Laszlo was a management consultant at McKinsey & Company, serving clients in the technology, private equity and media industries on issues of organizational design, talent acquisition and development, and cultural transformation. Laszlo’s client work also extended to broader business growth and turnaround strategy. Earlier, he worked as a compensation consultant at Hewitt Associates, an HR consultancy.

Laszlo earned an MBA from the Yale University School of Management and a bachelor’s degree in international relations from Pomona College.


Shona Brown
Senior Vice President, Business Operations

Shona Brown took on responsibilities for Google’s business operations in 2003, following almost a decade consulting with technology clients in Toronto and Los Angeles for McKinsey & Company. As a partner at McKinsey, she was a leader of the global strategy practice and worked with a wide range of firms on strategy development, business model transformation and operational issues. Her experience includes extensive work in consumer software and hardware technology, online consumer services, and Internet media markets.

She has taught in the Department of Industrial Engineering and Graduate School of Business at Stanford University and within McKinsey’s mini-MBA program. She is the author of the best-selling business book, Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos, which introduced a new strategic model for competing in volatile markets, and she has published broadly in both applied and academic journals.

Shona has a bachelor’s degree in computer systems engineering from Carleton University in Canada and a master’s degree in economics and philosophy from Oxford University as a Rhodes scholar. She received her Ph.D. and postdoctoral degree from Stanford University’s Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management.


W. M. Coughran, Jr.
Senior Vice President, Engineering

Bill Coughran leads the broad systems infrastructure group underlying Google’s products and services, including cluster management, storage, search systems, and a number of product engineering efforts. He joined Google engineering in early 2003.

Throughout his extensive career in computing, Bill has been involved with networking, secure, and distributed systems as well as computational science and engineering. Before joining Google, Bill co-founded and served as CEO and in other executive roles at Entrisphere in Silicon Valley. Earlier, he was head of Bell Labs’ Computing Sciences Research Center, where C, C++, Unix, Plan 9, and Inferno were created. He has also worked in computational science and distributed systems.

Bill currently serves on the boards of directors for nSolutions Inc and Clearwell Systems Inc. In addition, he is an author of more than 50 publications and has served on several scientific boards/committees and technical advisory bodies. He has also held adjunct and visiting positions at Stanford, the ETH, and Duke.

Bill holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University as well as degrees in mathematics from Caltech.


David C. Drummond
Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer

David Drummond joined Google in 2002, initially as vice president of corporate development. Today as senior vice president and chief legal officer, he leads Google’s global teams for legal, government relations, corporate development (M&A and investment projects) and new business development (strategic partnerships and licensing opportunities).

David was first introduced to Google in 1998 as a partner in the corporate transactions group at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich and Rosati, one of the nation’s leading law firms representing technology businesses. He served as Google’s first outside counsel and worked with Larry Page and Sergey Brin to incorporate the company and secure its initial rounds of financing. During his tenure at Wilson Sonsini, David worked with a wide variety of technology companies to help them manage complex transactions such as mergers, acquisitions and initial public offerings.

David earned his bachelor’s degree in history from Santa Clara University and his JD from Stanford Law School.


Alan Eustace
Senior Vice President, Engineering & Research

Alan Eustace is one of Google’s senior vice presidents of engineering. He joined Google in the summer of 2002. Prior to Google, Alan spent 15 years at Digital/Compaq/HP’s Western Research Laboratory where he worked on a variety of chip design and architecture projects, including the MicroTitan Floating Point unit, BIPS – the fastest microprocessor of its era. Alan also worked with Amitabh Srivastava on ATOM, a binary code instrumentation system that forms the basis for a wide variety of program analysis and computer architecture analysis tools. These tools had a profound influence on the design of the EV5, EV6 and EV7 chip designs. Alan was promoted to director of the Western Research Laboratory in 1999. WRL had active projects in pocket computing, chip multi-processors, power and energy management, internet performance, and frequency and voltage scaling.

In addition to directing Google’s engineering efforts, Alan is actively involved in a number of Google’s community-related activities such as The Second Harvest Food Bank and the Anita Borg Scholarship Fund.

Alan is an author of 9 publications and holds 10 patents. He earned a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Central Florida.


Urs Hölzle
Senior Vice President, Operations & Google Fellow

Urs Hölzle served as the company’s first vice president of engineering and led the development of Google’s technical infrastructure. His current responsibilities include the design and operation of the servers, networks and datacenters that power Google. He is also renowned for both his red socks and his free-range Leonberger, Yoshka (Google’s top dog). Urs joined Google from the University of California, Santa Barbara where he was an associate professor of computer science. He received a master’s degree in computer science from ETH Zurich in 1988 and was awarded a Fulbright scholarship that same year. In 1994, he earned a Ph.D. from Stanford University, where his research focused on programming languages and their efficient implementation.

As one of the pioneers of dynamic compilation, also known as “just-in-time compilation,” Urs invented fundamental techniques used in most of today’s leading Java compilers. Before joining Google, Urs was a co-founder of Animorphic Systems, which developed compilers for Smalltalk and Java. After Sun Microsystems acquired Animorphic Systems in 1997, he helped build Javasoft’s high-performance Hotspot Java compiler.

In 1996, Urs received a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation for his work on high-performance implementations of object-oriented languages. He was also a leading contributor to DARPA’s National Compiler Infrastructure project. Urs has served on program committees for major conferences in the field of programming language implementation, and is the author of numerous scientific papers and U.S. patents.


Jeff Huber
Senior Vice President, Engineering

Jeff Huber joined Google in 2003 and is a senior vice president of engineering. In this role, Jeff leads the technology development and innovation efforts for the company’s advertising and monetization systems, including Google’s AdWords and AdSense programs, as well as Google Apps, including Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Reader, Google Groups, Orkut, Blogger and Picasa.

Jeff brings more than 15 years of experience in large scale systems design and operation, online consumer product development, high volume transaction processing and engineering management.

Prior to joining Google, Jeff was vice president of architecture & and systems development at eBay, where he championed the development of their product search infrastructure and expansion of the platform API program. Before eBay, Jeff was senior vice president of engineering at Excite@Home, where he led consumer product and infrastructure development for the largest broadband service provider. Earlier in his career, he was a technology consultant with McKinsey & Company, and founded a software development start-up. Jeff holds a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering from the University of Illinois and a master’s degree from Harvard University.


Omid Kordestani
Senior Vice President, Global Sales & Business Development

Omid Kordestani is the senior vice president of global sales and business development. He is directly responsible for Google’s worldwide revenue generation efforts as well as the day-to-day operations of the company’s sales organization. As Google’s “business founder,” Omid led the development and implementation of the company’s initial business model. Since joining in May of 1999, he has brought Google to profitability in record time, generating more than $10 billion in revenue in 2006.

Omid has more than 20 years of high-technology consumer and enterprise experience, holding key positions at several start-ups, including Internet pioneer Netscape Communications. As vice president of business development and sales, he grew Netscape’s online revenue from an annual run-rate of $88 million to more than $200 million in 18 months. Prior to Netscape, he held positions in marketing, product management, and business development at The 3DO Company, Go Corporation and Hewlett-Packard.

Omid received an MBA from the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from San Jose State University.


Patrick Pichette
Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer

Patrick Pichette is Google’s chief financial officer. He has nearly 20 years of experience in financial operations and management in the telecommunications sector, including seven years at Bell Canada, which he joined in 2001 as executive vice president of planning and performance management. During his time at Bell Canada, he held various executive positions, including CFO from 2002 until the end of 2003, and was instrumental in the management of the most extensive communications network in Canada and its ongoing migration to a new national IP-based infrastructure. Prior to joining Bell Canada, Patrick was a partner at McKinsey & Company, where he was a lead member of McKinsey’s North American Telecom Practice. He also served as vice president and chief financial officer of Call-Net Enterprises, a Canadian telecommunications company.

Patrick earned a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Université du Québec à Montréal. He holds a master’s degree in philosophy, politics and economics from Oxford University, where he attended as a Rhodes Scholar. He also serves on the board of Engineers Without Borders (Canada).


Jonathan Rosenberg
Senior Vice President, Product Management

Jonathan Rosenberg is an industry veteran who oversees the teams that manage Google’s innovative product portfolio and go-to-market strategies. In this role, Jonathan oversees the design, creation and improvement of all of Google’s products, from consumer offerings to publisher and business services. He directs the teams with a special focus on delivering exceptional user experience, continuous innovation, and highly relevant, accountable, and untraditional marketing.

Prior to joining Google in 2002, Jonathan founded, led and managed some of the most innovative product development teams of the Internet’s first era. He was the founding member of @Home’s product group and served as senior vice president of online products and services after the merger of Excite and @Home. Prior to that, Jonathan managed the eWorld product line for Apple Computer. Earlier, he was director of product marketing for Knight Ridder Information Services in Palo Alto, California, where he directed development of one of the first commercially deployed online relevance ranking engines and menu-driven Boolean search services for consumers.

Jonathan holds an MBA from the University of Chicago and a bachelor’s degree with honors in economics from Claremont McKenna College, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa.


Rachel Whetstone
Vice President, Global Communications & Public Affairs

Rachel Whetstone joined Google in 2005, after 15 years advising senior politicians and FTSE companies on their strategic communications. She is responsible for the company’s public-facing communications, including media relations and stakeholder outreach, as well as internal communications.

Rachel has a bachelor’s degree in history from Bristol University.

Engineering

Vinton G. Cerf
Vice President & Chief Internet Evangelist

Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and Chief Internet Evangelist for Google. He is responsible for identifying new enabling technologies and applications on the Internet and other platforms for the company.

Widely known as a “Father of the Internet,” Vint is the co-designer with Robert Kahn of TCP/IP protocols and basic architecture of the Internet. In 1997, President Clinton recognized their work with the U.S. National Medal of Technology. In 2005, Vint and Bob received the highest civilian honor bestowed in the U.S., the Presidential Medal of Freedom. It recognizes the fact that their work on the software code used to transmit data across the Internet has put them “at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment.”

From 1994-2005, Vint served as Senior Vice President at MCI. Prior to that, he was Vice President of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), and from 1982-86 he served as Vice President of MCI. During his tenure with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) from 1976-1982, Vint played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related data packet and security technologies.

Since 2000, Vint has served as chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and he has been a Visiting Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory since 1998. He served as founding president of the Internet Society (ISOC) from 1992-1995 and was on the ISOC board until 2000. Vint is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, AAAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum and the National Academy of Engineering.

Vint has received numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet, including the Marconi Fellowship, Charles Stark Draper award of the National Academy of Engineering, the Prince of Asturias award for science and technology, the Alexander Graham Bell Award presented by the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, the A.M. Turing Award from the Association for Computer Machinery, the Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union, and the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, among many others.

He holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from UCLA and more than a dozen honorary degrees.


Stuart Feldman
Vice President, Engineering

Stu is responsible for engineering activities at Google’s offices in the eastern half of the Americas. Before joining Google, he worked at IBM for eleven years. Most recently, he was Vice President for Computer Science in IBM Research, where he drove the long-term and exploratory worldwide science strategy in computer science and related fields, led programs for open collaborative research with universities, and influenced national and global computer science policy.

Prior to that, Stu served as Vice President for Internet Technology and was responsible for IBM strategies, standards, and policies relating to the future of the Internet, and managed a department that created experimental Internet-based applications. Earlier, he was the founding Director of IBM’s Institute for Advanced Commerce, which was dedicated to creating intellectual leadership in e-commerce.

Before joining IBM in mid-1995, Stu was a computer science researcher at Bell Labs and a research manager at Bellcore. In addition he was the creator of Make as well as the architect for a large new line of software products at Bellcore.

Stu did his academic work in astrophysics and mathematics and earned his AB at Princeton and his PhD at MIT. He is President of ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) and received the 2003 ACM Software System Award. He is also a Fellow of the IEEE, a Fellow of the ACM, and serves on a number of government advisory committees.


Ben Fried
Chief Information Officer

Ben is Chief Information Officer, overseeing the company’s global technology systems. His extensive hands-on experience in technology includes stints as a dBASE II programmer, front-line support manager, Macintosh developer, Windows 1.0 programmer, and Unix systems programmer. Prior to joining Google, he spent more than 13 years in Morgan Stanley’s technology department, where he rose to the level of Managing Director. During his time there, he led teams responsible for software development technology, web and electronic commerce technologies and operations, and technologies for knowledge workers.

Ben earned a bachelor’s degree in computer science from Columbia University.


Vic Gundotra
Vice President, Engineering

Vic joined Google in 2007 as a Vice President of Engineering, responsible for mobile applications and developer evangelism. In addition, he is responsible for product management and marketing for mobile products at Google. He also oversees applications development. Previously, Vic spent 15 years at Microsoft, where he worked on a variety of products and operating systems, including Windows 3.0, NT, Windows XP, and Vista. He was recognized by MIT as a “Young Innovator under 35” for his work in sparking the Microsoft’s change from Win32 to the .NET programming model.

Most recently, Vic was General Manager of Microsoft’s developer outreach efforts worldwide, including evangelism and strategy for products like Windows Vista, Visual Studio, Microsoft Office, Microsoft CRM, and Windows Mobile.

Vic holds two patents in the area of distributed computing and identity-based access to cloud resources.


Udi Manber
Vice President, Engineering

As a Vice President of Engineering, Udi is responsible for core search. Before joining Google early in 2006, Udi was CEO of A9.com, a Senior VP at Amazon.com, and Yahoo’s Chief Scientist. He started working on search algorithms in 1989 with the invention of Suffix Arrays (with Gene Myers) while he was a professor at the University of Arizona, and he was a co-developer of several search packages, including Agrep, Glimpse, WebGlimpse, and Harvest. He started developing search and other software tools for the web 2 months after Mosaic was announced in 1993, and continued ever since. While in academia, he also worked in the areas of theoretical computer science, computer security, distributed systems, and networks. He won a Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1985.

Udi holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Washington.


Nelson Mattos
Vice President, Engineering, EMEA

Nelson joined Google in 2007, and as VP of Engineering for the EMEA region, he is responsible for all engineering and product development activities. Prior to joining Google, he worked in various capacities at IBM for 15 years. Most recently, Nelson was an IBM Distinguished Engineer and Vice-President of Information and User Technologies at IBM Research. He led an organization of researchers worldwide who worked on projects involving search, structured and unstructured information processing and analytics, natural language processing, conversational and multimodal interaction, business collaboration tools, visualization technologies and overall user experience. He was also an IBM Distinguished Engineer and Vice-President, Information Integration for the IBM Software Group, for which he created a portfolio of products that grew into a several hundred million dollar business, brought several key technologies to market, and drove five key acquisitions in support of this segment. Nelson’s career with IBM also included key roles in DB2 development, leading major SQL extensions, and driving worldwide database standards; in this capacity, he contributed to the design of SQL99 through more than 300 accepted proposals.

Prior to IBM, Nelson was an associate professor at the University of Kaiserslautern in Germany, where he was involved in research on object-oriented and knowledge base management systems.

Nelson received his Ph. D. in Computer Science from University of Kaiserslautern and also holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Computer Science from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. He has published over 80 papers on database management and related topics, holds 13 patents, and is the author of book, An Approach to Knowledge Base Management.


Cosmos Nicolaou
Vice President, Engineering

As a vice president of engineering, Cos is responsible for the infrastructure that supports web search. Cos joined Google in 2003 and since then has worked on a number of different properties, including Froogle, Google Video and Google News, before spending the last three years working on search. Prior to Google, Cos worked at a number of start-ups, including co-founding Nemesys Research, which was sold to FORE Systems in 1996. He later moved to the U.S. with FORE Systems in 1999. He also led the development teams for Akamai Technology’s streaming and storage teams from 1999 to 2002, when these were the first such services to be offered at internet scale.

Cos has a bachelor’s degree with first class honors from University College London and a Ph.D. from Cambridge University, both in computer science.


Sridhar Ramaswamy
Vice President, Engineering

Sridhar directs engineering for Google’s AdWords advertising products. Since joining Google in 2003, Sridhar and his teams have taken a lead role in defining the vision and direction of AdWords. Prior to joining Google, he held several roles at E.piphany. Most recently, he was director of engineering for the company’s Analytic Platform. Previously, he held research positions at Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies and Bell Communications Research (Bellcore).

Sridhar earned a bachelor’s degree in computer science from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras. He received his Ph.D. and master’s degree in computer science from Brown University. He has published numerous papers on database systems and database theory.


Shiva Shivakumar
Vice President and Distinguished Entrepreneur

As Vice President and Distinguished Entrepreneur, Shiva specializes in spinning up new technologies and businesses. Since joining Google in 2001, Shiva and his teams have launched a variety of products in core ads and search, including AdSense, Google Search Appliances, Sitemaps and Webmaster Tools. Shiva played a key role in building Google’s engineering centers including Kirkland/Seattle, Bangalore and Zurich engineering centers. Prior to joining Google, he co-founded Gigabeat.com, an online music company later acquired by Napster.

Shiva received a B.S. summa cum laude in Computer Science & Engineering from UCLA. He completed a Masters and PhD in Computer Science from Stanford University, where he received the 1999 Arthur Samuel Dissertation Award. Shiva is the author of numerous research papers and U.S. patents, and serves on program committees for major conferences on databases, data mining and information retrieval.


Alfred Spector
VP of Research and Special Initiatives

Alfred joined Google in November of 2007 and is responsible for the research across Google and also a growing collection of special initiatives – typically projects with high strategic value to the company, but somewhat outside the mainstream of current products.

Previously, Alfred was Vice President of Strategy and Technology IBM’s Software Business, and prior to that, he was Vice President of Services and Software Research across IBM. He was also founder and CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide area file systems, and was an Associate Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, specializing in highly reliable, highly scalable distributed computing.

Alfred received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford and his A.B. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM, and the recipient of the 2001 IEEE Computer Society’s Tsutomu Kanai Award for work in scalable architectures and distributed systems.


Benjamin Sloss Treynor
Vice President, Engineering

Ben joined Google as Site Reliability Tsar in 2003. In that role he has led the development and operations of Google’s production software infrastructure, network, and major user-facing services.

Earlier, Ben held engineering management roles at Seven Networks as Vice President of Engineering, at E.piphany as an engineering director, and at Versant Object Technology, in roles ranging from individual contributor to Vice President of R&D. Ben started his career at Oracle at age 17 as a software engineer.

Ben holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Computer Science from Stanford University, and an MBA from the University of California- Berkeley Haas School of Business.


Jeff Dean
Google Fellow

Jeff joined Google in 1999 and is currently a Google Fellow working in the Systems Infrastructure Group. Jeff has designed and implemented large portions of the company’s advertising, crawling, indexing and query serving systems, along with various pieces of the distributed computing infrastructure that sits underneath most of Google’s products. At various times, Jeff has also worked on improving search quality, statistical machine translation, and various internal software development tools, and he has had significant involvement in the engineering hiring process.

Prior to joining Google, Jeff was at DEC/Compaq’s Western Research Laboratory, where he worked on profiling tools, microprocessor architecture, and information retrieval. Earlier, he worked at the World Health Organization’s Global Programme on AIDS, developing software for statistical modeling and forecasting of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Jeff is an author of more than 20 publications and a co-inventor on more than 25 patents. He earned a B.S. in computer science and economics (summa cum laude) from the University of Minnesota and received a Ph.D. and a M.S. in computer science from the University of Washington.


Sanjay Ghemawat
Google Fellow

Sanjay works on the distributed computing infrastructure that is used by most Google products. He has led the design and implementation of various storage systems (GFS, Bigtable), a batch processing system (MapReduce), networking libraries, data representation languages, memory management systems, and various performance measurement tools.

Previously, Sanjay was a researcher at DEC’s Systems Research Center, where he worked on performance measurement tools, Java virtual machines, and Java compilers.

He earned a bachelor’s degree from Cornell as well as a Ph.D. and M.S. from MIT, all in computer science.


Amit Singhal
Google Fellow

Amit Singhal has worked in the field of search for over fifteen years, first as an academic researcher and now as Google engineer. His research interests include information retrieval, its application to web search, web graph analysis, and user interfaces for search. At Google, Amit works with the Search Quality team, the team responsible for Google’s search algorithms. Prior to joining Google in 2000, Amit was a senior member of technical staff at AT&T Labs.

Amit has an undergraduate degree in India from IIT, Roorkee, a MS from the University of Minnesota and a Ph.D. from Cornell University, all in Computer Science. At Cornell, he studied Information Retrieval with the late Gerard Salton, one of the founders of the field. Amit has co-authored more than thirty scientific papers and numerous patents.

Products

Doug Garland
Vice President, Product Management

Doug Garland is a vice president of product management. In this role, he focuses on delivering services to consumers through partnerships. Additionally, he helps drive the company’s initiative to foster the development of a robust and open wireless broadband ecosystem.

Doug has more than 20 years of experience leading the development and growth of Internet and wireless services. Prior to joining Google, Doug was an executive in residence at the venture capital firm Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield & Byers, serving as an advisor on mobile. Prior to that, he was a senior vice president at Yahoo!, where he led the company’s mobile efforts and the launch of the broadband access business. He also held executive positions with Excite@Home and leading wireless companies, playing a key role in the launch of Sprint PCS and the development of digital cellular while at PacTel/AirTouch. Doug began his career as a communications network engineer and served as an officer in the U.S. Air Force.

Doug holds an MBA from Stanford University, where he participated in the Public Management Program, including a brief stint as a visiting policy fellow at the FCC. He also holds a bachelor’s degree with distinction and a master’s degree in systems engineering from the University of Virginia, where he currently is a trustee of the School of Engineering and Applied Science.


Bradley Horowitz
Vice President, Product Management

Bradley oversees Google’s communications products and social applications including Google Talk, GrandCentral, Blogger and Picasa. Before joining Google, Bradley led Yahoo’s advanced development division, which developed new products such as Yahoo! Pipes, and drove the acquisition of products such as Flickr and MyBlogLog. Previously, he was Co-Founder and CTO of Virage, where he oversaw the technical direction of the company from its founding through its IPO and eventual acquisition by Autonomy.

Bradley holds a bachelor’s degree in computer science from the University of Michigan, and a master’s degree from the MIT Media Lab and was pursuing his Ph.D. there when he co-founded Virage.


Salar Kamangar
Vice President, Product Management

Salar is vice president of Google’s web applications, including Gmail, Talk, Calendar, Reader, Orkut, Blogger, Picasa, Video, Docs, Spreadsheets, Presentations and Checkout. Previously, he was vice president of product management for Google’s advertising and monetization products, including the AdWords program, which he defined with a small engineering team. Prior to that, Salar created the company’s first business plan and was responsible for its legal and finance functions. He then became a founding member of Google’s product team, working on consumer projects such as the acquisition of DejaNews and the subsequent launch of Google Groups.

Salar earned his bachelor’s degree in biological sciences with honors from Stanford University.


Marissa Mayer
Vice President, Search Products & User Experience

Marissa leads the company’s product management efforts on search products – web search, images, news, books, products, maps, Google Earth, the Google Toolbar, Google Desktop, Google Health, Google Labs, and more. She joined Google in 1999 as Google’s first female engineer and led the user interface and web server teams at that time. Her efforts have included designing and developing Google’s search interface, internationalizing the site to more than 100 languages, defining Google News, Gmail, and Orkut, and launching more than 100 features and products on Google.com. Several patents have been filed on her work in artificial intelligence and interface design. In her spare time, Marissa also organizes Google Movies – outings a few times a year to see the latest blockbusters – for 6,000+ people (employees plus family and friends).

Concurrently with her full-time work at Google, Marissa has taught introductory computer programming classes at Stanford to more than 3,000 students. Stanford has recognized her with the Centennial Teaching Award and the Forsythe Award for her outstanding contribution to undergraduate education.

Prior to joining Google, Marissa worked at the UBS research lab (Ubilab) in Zurich, Switzerland, and at SRI International in Menlo Park, California.

Marissa has been featured in various publications, including Newsweek (“10 Tech Leaders of the Future”), Red Herring (“15 Women to Watch”), Business 2.0 (“Silicon Valley Dream Team”), BusinessWeek, Fortune, and Fast Company.

Graduating with honors, Marissa received her B.S. in Symbolic Systems and her M.S. in Computer Science from Stanford University. For both degrees, she specialized in artificial intelligence.


Sundar Pichai
Vice President, Product Management

Sundar joined Google in 2004 and is currently a vice president of product management. He leads the product management and innovation efforts for a suite of Google’s search and consumer products, including iGoogle, Google Toolbar, Desktop Search and Gadgets, Google Pack, and Gears.

Sundar brings more than 12 years of experience developing high-tech consumer and enterprise products. Before joining Google, he held various engineering and product management positions at Applied Materials, and was a management consultant with McKinsey & Company for a variety of software and semiconductor clients.

Sundar received a B.Tech from the Indian Institute of Technology and was awarded an Institute Silver Medal. He holds an M.S. from Stanford University and an MBA from the Wharton School, where he was named a Siebel Scholar and a Palmer Scholar.


Mario Queiroz
Vice President, Product Management

As our London-based Vice President of Product Management for international markets, Mario is responsible for product strategy and implementation in non-US geographies as well as for the design of search, ads, and apps products across 20 of Google’s international R&D centers. His previous assignment at Google was to lead the company’s global IT product strategy and development. Prior to joining Google in 2005, Mario was with Hewlett-Packard for 16 years. He last served at HP as Vice President within a global operations function with responsibility for key elements of HP’s IT infrastructure. This followed engineering, product management, marketing, and operations positions in HP’s systems, PC, and printing businesses in California, Germany, and Spain.

A Brazilian national, Mario currently serves on the board of directors of Metro International, a newspaper published daily in 150 cities around the world. Mario holds Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University.


Lorraine Twohill
Vice President, Marketing, EMEA

Lorraine joined Google in 2003 and is an active member of the European management team. She is responsible for all of Google’s regional marketing activities and teams in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Her marketing programmes focus on the go-to-market strategy and adoption of all of Google’s products, from consumer offerings to business services.

Previously, Lorraine was Head of Marketing for Opodo, the European travel portal created by nine of Europe’s leading airlines. She led the launch of the company across Europe, bringing it to a top 3 position in all launch markets within 2 years.

US publication Advertising Age has recognized Lorraine on the “Top 40 Under 40” Global Marketing list. She has also been cited in the Power 100 list by UK magazine Marketing for the past 3 years running. Lorraine holds a joint honours degree in International Marketing and Languages from Dublin City University and has been named to the DCU Alumni Roll of Honour.


Susan Wojcicki
Vice President, Product Management

Susan Wojcicki is Google’s Vice President of Product Management responsible for managing Google’s advertising, monetization, and measurement platforms products, including AdWords, AdSense, and Google Analytics.

Susan has a long history with Google: In 1998, her garage served as the company’s first headquarters. In 1999, she began as Google’s first marketing professional. In those days, she was responsible for a wide range of activities, including the establishment of the corporate identity, some of the first holiday logos, and marketing activities and collateral. She also product-managed the licensing of web search, site search and enterprise to Google’s first customers, and was responsible for the initial development of Google Image Search, Book Search and Video Search.

Before joining Google, Susan worked at Intel, and was a management consultant at Bain and R.B. Webber & Company. Susan graduated with honors from Harvard University, holds an MS from the University of California at Santa Cruz, and an MBA from the Anderson School of Management at UCLA.

Sales

Daniel Alegre
Vice President, Asia Pacific Sales & Operations

Daniel oversees all of Google’s sales and operations for the Asia Pacific region. Previously, he was vice president for Latin America sales. Additionally, he oversaw APLA (Asia Pacific and Latin America) business development, and was responsible for all international wireless, syndication, content acquisition and reseller strategic partnerships. Since joining Google in 2004, he has expanded strategic partnerships, including China Mobile, AOL Europe, KDDI and NTT Docomo.

Previously, Daniel worked for 7 years at media company Bertelsmann AG, focused mainly on offline and online music and digital initiatives in different capacities: he was vice president of business development of the Bertelsmann eCommerce Group in New York, spearheading all partnerships and acquisitions for the BMG Music Clubs and CDNow, including strategic partnerships and investments in Napster and MyPlay; managing director of record division BMG Music in Latin America; and director of new internet initiatives in the company headquarters in Guetersloh, Germany. Earlier, Daniel started and ran an FM radio station in Mexico.

Daniel holds dual degrees from Harvard University: an MBA from Harvard Business School and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. He graduated cum laude with a bachelor’s degree from Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.


Tim Armstrong
President, The Americas Operations & Senior Vice President, Google

Tim presides over Google’s North American and Latin American advertising sales and operations teams. His team provides customers with local partnerships as well as centralized sales and services. They work with some of the world’s most widely recognized brands and advertising agencies in addition to some of the fastest growing medium-sized companies.

Tim joined Google from Snowball.com, where he was vice president of sales and strategic partnerships. Prior to his role at Snowball.com, he served as director of integrated sales & marketing at Starwave’s and Disney’s ABC/ESPN Internet Ventures, working across the companies’ Internet, TV, radio, and print properties. He started his career by co-founding and running a newspaper based in Boston, MA, before joining IDG to launch their first consumer Internet magazine, I-Way.

Tim sits on the boards of the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), the Advertising Council, and the Advertising Research Foundation, and is a trustee at Connecticut College and Lawrence Academy. He is a graduate of Connecticut College, with a double major in economics and sociology.


Nikesh Arora
President, EMEA Operations & Senior Vice President, Google

As President of Google EMEA, Nikesh manages and develops Google’s operations in the European, Middle Eastern and African markets. He is responsible for creating and expanding strategic partnerships in these regions for the benefit of Google’s growing number of users and advertisers.

With a background as an analyst, Nikesh’s main areas of focus have been consulting, IT, marketing and finance. Prior to joining Google, he was chief marketing officer and a member of the management board at T-Mobile. While there he spearheaded all product development, terminals, brand and marketing activities of T-Mobile Europe. In 1999, he started working with Deutsche Telekom and founded T-Motion PLC, a mobile multimedia subsidiary of T-Mobile International. Prior to joining Deutsche Telekom, Nikesh held management positions at Putnam Investments and Fidelity Investments in Boston.

Nikesh holds an MS and CFA certification from Boston College, and an MBA from Northeastern University, all of which were awarded with distinction. He has served on the adjunct faculty at both Boston College and Northeastern University, developing and teaching courses in business turnarounds, corporate workouts and financial management. In 1989, Nikesh graduated from the Institute of Technology in Varanasi, India with a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering.


Sukhinder Singh Cassidy
President, Asia-Pacific & Latin America Operations

Sukhinder Singh Cassidy is Google’s President for Asia-Pacific (APAC) & Latin America Operations. In this role, she is responsible for all of Google’s commercial operations in both regions, and has established the company’s presence through 18 offices in 18 countries serving Google’s users, advertisers and partners throughout APAC and Latin America.

Prior to Google, Sukhinder drove sales and business development with leading Internet companies in the consumer and financial services sectors. From 1999-2003, Sukhinder was Co-founder and Senior Vice President of Business Development for Yodlee.com Inc., a leading solutions provider to the global financial services industry. For her entrepreneurship and contributions to the financial services industry, Sukhinder has been profiled in publications including Business Week Online, Canada Post, and Innovation Nation, a book profiling Canadian business leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2002). Sukhinder started her Internet career in strategy and business development for leading e-commerce company Amazon.com and public interactive TV solutions provider OpenTV.

Sukhinder previously worked in strategy for leading British Pay TV provider, BSkyB, a division of News Corporation, and in investment banking for Merrill Lynch in both New York and London.

Sukhinder is a board member of OICW, an organization focused on vocational training for troubled youth and adults, and is a graduate of the Ivey School of Business Administration at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.

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Warren Buffett

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Net Worth: $62.0 billion

Fortune: self made| Age: 77 | Source: Berkshire Hathaway | Country Of Citizenship: United States |Residence: Omaha, Nebraska , United States, North America | Industry: Investments | Marital Status: widowed, remarried, 3 children | Education: University of Nebraska Lincoln, Bachelor of Arts / Science

America’s most beloved investor is now the world’s richest man. Soared past friend and bridge partner Bill Gates as shares of Berkshire Hathaway (nyse: BRKAnewspeople ) climbed 25% since the middle of last July. Son of Nebraska politician delivered newspapers as a boy. Filed first tax return at age 13, claiming $35 deduction for bicycle. Studied under value investing guru Benjamin Graham at Columbia. Took over textile firm Berkshire Hathaway 1965. Today holding company invested in insurance (Geico, General Re), jewelry (Borsheim’s), utilities (MidAmerican Energy (other-otc: MDPWL.PKnewspeople ) , food (Dairy Queen, See’s Candies). Also has noncontrolling stakes in Anheuser-Busch (nyse: BUDnewspeople ) Coca-Cola (nyse: KOnewspeople ) Wells Fargo (nyse: WFCnewspeople ) Insurance operations flourished in 2007. “That party is over. It’s a certainty that insurance-industry profit margins, including ours, will fall significantly in 2008.” The Oracle (nasdaq: ORCLnewspeople ) of Omaha issued a challenge to members of The Forbes 400 in October; said he would donate $1 million to charity if the collective group of richest Americans would admit they pay less taxes, as a percentage of income, than their secretaries. Had long promised to give away his fortune posthumously. Irrevocably earmarked the majority of his Berkshire shares to charity in 2006, mostly to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Gift was valued at $31 billion on day of announcement; donation will far exceed that sum so long as Berkshire shares continue to rise.

Carlos Slim Helu & family

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Net Worth: $60.0 billion

Fortune: self made | Age: 68 | Source: telecom | Country Of Citizenship: Mexico |Residence: Mexico City , Mexico, Latin America | Industry: Communications | Marital Status: widowed, 6 children | Education: NA

Second-richest man in the world this year; even richer than Microsoft’s Bill Gates, at least for now, thanks to strong Mexican equities market and the performance of his wireless telephone company, America Movil (nyse: AMXnewspeople ) The son of a Lebanese immigrant, Slim made his first fortune in 1990 when he bought fixed line operator Telefonos de Mexico (Telmex) in a privatization. In December, America Movil struck a deal with Yahoo (nasdaq: YHOOnewspeople ) to provide mobile Web services to 16 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. A widower and father of six, Slim is a baseball fan and art collector. He keeps his art collection in Mexico City’s Museo Soumaya, which he named after his late wife. In recent years, he has donated close to $7 billion worth of cash and stock to fund education and health projects, and to the revitalization of Mexico City’s downtown historical district.

William Gates III

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Net Worth: $58.0 billion

Fortune: self made| Age: 52 | Source: Microsoft | Country Of Citizenship: United States | Residence: Medina, Washington , United States, North America | Industry: Software | Marital Status: married, 3 children | Education: Harvard University, Drop Out

Harvard dropout and Microsoft visionary no longer the world’s richest man. Blame Yahoo: Microsoft shares have fallen 15% since the company boldly attempted to merge with the search engine giant to better fight Google (nasdaq: GOOGnewspeople ) for Internet dominance. Gates is preparing to give up day-to-day involvement in the company he cofounded 33 years ago to spend more time focused on his philanthropic endeavors. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has $38.7 billion in assets, donates to causes aimed at bringing financial tools to the poor, speeding up the development of vaccines (for AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis), bettering America’s lagging high schools. Sells 20 million Microsoft shares every quarter, proceeds going to private investment vehicle Cascade (nyse: CAEnewspeople ) more than half of net worth now outside of Microsoft. Company spent $6 billion to land Web ad firm Aquantive last May. Would-be rival to Apple (nasdaq: AAPLnewspeople ) s iPod, the Zune, not yet a hit. Believes Microsoft’s far-flung bets, including 10-year affair with Internet-based television, may soon pay off; says next 10 years will be the “most interesting” in software history.

Lakshmi Mittal

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Net Worth: $45.0 billion

Age: 57 | Fortune: inherited and growing | Source: steel | Country Of Citizenship: India | Residence: London , United Kingdom, Europe & Russia | Industry: Manufacturing | Marital Status: married, 2 children | Education: St Xavier’s College Calcutta, Bachelor of Arts / Science

Heads world’s largest steelmaker, $105 billion (sales) ArcelorMittal, which accounts for 10% of all crude steel production. Just delivered 580 tons to be used in construction of the World Trade Center memorial in New York. With 44% stake, is the company’s largest shareholder. Longtime resident of London is Europe’s richest resident.

Mukesh Ambani

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Net Worth: $43.0 billion

Fortune: inherited and growing | Age: 50 | Source: petrochemicals | Country Of Citizenship: India | Residence: Mumbai , India, Asia & Australia | Industry: Manufacturing | Marital Status: married, 3 children |Education: University of Bombay, Bachelor of Chemical Engineering and Stanford University, Master of Business Administration

Asia’s richest resident heads petrochemicals giant Reliance Industries, India’s most valuable company by market cap. His fortune is up $22.9 billion since last year, making him the world’s second biggest gainer in terms of dollars. The biggest gainer was his estranged brother Anil, who ranks 6th in the world just behind his older brother. The sons inherited their fortune from their late father, renowned industrialist Dhirubhai Ambani. But they couldn’t get along and in 2005 their mother brokered a peace settlement breaking up the family’s assets. Mukesh is using some of his money to build a 27-story home.

Source: http://www.forbes.com/2008/03/05/richest-people-billionaires-billionaires08-cx_lk_0305billie_land.html

1908-1970

Dr. C. George Boeree


Biography

Abraham Harold Maslow was born April 1, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York.  He was the first of seven children born to his parents, who themselves were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia.  His parents, hoping for the best for their children in the new world, pushed him hard for academic success.  Not surprisingly, he became very lonely as a boy, and found his refuge in books.

To satisfy his parents, he first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY).  After three semesters, he transferred to Cornell, and then back to CCNY.  He married Bertha Goodman, his first cousin, against his parents wishes.  Abe and Bertha went on to have two daughters.

He and Bertha moved to Wisconsin so that he could attend the University of Wisconsin.  Here, he became interested in psychology, and his school work began to improve dramatically. He spent time there working with Harry Harlow, who is famous for his experiments with baby rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior.

He received his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of Wisconsin.  A year after graduation, he returned to New York to work with E. L. Thorndike at Columbia, where Maslow became interested in research on human sexuality.

He began teaching full time at Brooklyn College.  During this period of his life, he came into contact with the many European intellectuals that were immigrating to the US, and Brooklyn in particular, at that time — people like Adler, Fromm, Horney, as well as several Gestalt and Freudian psychologists.

Maslow served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis from 1951 to 1969.  While there he met Kurt Goldstein, who had originated the idea of self-actualization in his famous book, The Organism (1934).  It was also here that he began his crusade for a humanistic psychology — something ultimately much more important to him than his own theorizing.

He spend his final years in semi-retirement in California, until, on June 8 1970, he died of a heart attack after years of ill health.


Theory

One of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career, was that some needs take precedence over others.  For example, if you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first.  After all, you can do without food for weeks, but you can only do without water for a couple of days!  Thirst is a “stronger” need than hunger.  Likewise, if you are very very thirsty, but someone has put a choke hold on you and you can’t breath, which is more important?  The need to breathe, of course.  On the other hand, sex is less powerful than any of these.  Let’s face it, you won’t die if you don’t get it!

Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers:  the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order.

1.  The physiological needs.  These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium, and other minerals and vitamins.  They also include the need to maintain a pH balance (getting too acidic or base will kill you) and temperature (98.6 or near to it).  Also, there’s the needs to be active, to rest, to sleep, to get rid of wastes (CO2,  sweat, urine, and feces), to avoid pain, and to have sex.  Quite a collection!

Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs, and that a lack of, say, vitamin C, will lead to a very specific hunger for things which have in the past provided that vitamin C — e.g. orange juice.  I guess the cravings that some pregnant women have, and the way in which babies eat the most foul tasting baby food, support the idea anecdotally.

2.  The safety and security needs.  When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer of needs comes into play.  You will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, protection.  You might develop a need for structure, for order, some limits.

Looking at it negatively, you become concerned, not with needs like hunger and thirst, but with your fears and anxieties.  In the ordinary American adult, this set of needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighborhood, a little job security and a nest egg, a good retirement plan and a bit of insurance, and so on.

3.  The love and belonging needs.  When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to show up.  You begin to feel the need for friends, a sweetheart, children, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community.  Looked at negatively, you become increasing susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties.

In our day-to-day life, we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a member of a church, a brother in the fraternity, a part of a gang or a bowling club.  It is also a part of what we look for in a career.

4.  The esteem needs.  Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem.  Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one.  The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance.  The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom.  Note that this is the “higher” form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, it’s a lot harder to lose!

The negative version of these needs is low self-esteem and inferiority complexes.  Maslow felt that Adler was really onto something when he proposed that these were at the roots of many, if not most, of our psychological problems.  In modern countries, most of us have what we need in regard to our physiological and safety needs.  We, more often than not, have quite a bit of love and belonging, too.  It’s a little respect that often seems so very hard to get!

All of the preceding four levels he calls deficit needs, or D-needs.  If you don’t have enough of something — i.e. you have a deficit — you feel the need.  But if you get all you need, you feel nothing at all!  In other words, they cease to be motivating.  As the old blues song goes, “you don’t miss your water till your well runs dry!”

He also talks about these levels in terms of homeostasis.  Homeostasis is the principle by which your furnace thermostat operates:  When it gets too cold, it switches the heat on;  When it gets too hot, it switches the heat off.  In the same way, your body, when it lacks a certain substance, develops a hunger for it;  When it gets enough of it, then the hunger stops.  Maslow simply extends the homeostatic principle to needs, such as safety, belonging, and esteem, that we don’t ordinarily think of in these terms.

Maslow sees all these needs as essentially survival needs.  Even love and esteem are needed for the maintenance of health.  He says we all have these needs built in to us genetically, like instincts.  In fact, he calls them instinctoid — instinct-like — needs.

In terms of overall development, we move through these levels a bit like stages.  As newborns, our focus (if not our entire set of needs) is on the physiological.  Soon, we begin to recognize that we need to be safe.  Soon after that, we crave attention and affection.  A bit later, we look for self-esteem.  Mind you, this is in the first couple of years!

Under stressful conditions, or when survival is threatened, we can “regress” to a lower need level.  When you great career falls flat, you might seek out a little attention.  When your family ups and leaves you, it seems that love is again all you ever wanted.  When you face chapter eleven after a long and happy life, you suddenly can’t think of anything except money.

These things can occur on a society-wide basis as well:  When society suddenly flounders, people start clamoring for a strong leader to take over and make things right.  When the bombs start falling, they look for safety.  When the food stops coming into the stores, their needs become even more basic.

Maslow suggested that we can ask people for their “philosophy of the future” — what would their ideal life or world be like — and get significant information as to what needs they do or do not have covered.

If you have significant problems along your development — a period of extreme insecurity or hunger as a child, or the loss of a family member through death or divorce, or significant neglect or abuse — you may “fixate” on that set of needs for the rest of your life.

This is Maslow’s understanding of neurosis.  Perhaps you went through a war as a kid. Now you have everything your heart needs — yet you still find yourself obsessing over having enough money and keeping the pantry well-stocked.  Or perhaps your parents divorced when you were young.  Now you have a wonderful spouse — yet you get insanely jealous or worry constantly that they are going to leave you because you are not “good enough” for them.  You get the picture.

Self-actualization

The last level is a bit different.  Maslow has used a variety of terms to refer to this level:  He has called it growth motivation (in contrast to deficit motivation), being needs (or B-needs, in contrast to D-needs), and self-actualization.

These are needs that do not involve balance or homeostasis.  Once engaged, they continue to be felt.  In fact, they are likely to become stronger as we “feed” them!  They involve the continuous desire to fulfill potentials, to “be all that you can be.”  They are a matter of becoming the most complete, the fullest, “you” — hence the term, self-actualization.

Now, in keeping with his theory up to this point, if you want to be truly self-actualizing, you need to have your lower needs taken care of, at least to a considerable extent.  This makes sense:  If you are hungry, you are scrambling to get food;  If you are unsafe, you have to be continuously on guard;  If you are isolated and unloved, you have to satisfy that need;  If you have a low sense of self-esteem, you have to be defensive or compensate.  When lower needs are unmet, you can’t fully devote yourself to fulfilling your potentials.

It isn’t surprising, then, the world being as difficult as it is, that only a small percentage of the world’s population is truly, predominantly, self-actualizing.  Maslow at one point suggested only about two percent!

The question becomes, of course, what exactly does Maslow mean by self-actualization.  To answer that, we need to look at the kind of people he called self-actualizers.  Fortunately, he did this for us, using a qualitative method called biographical analysis.

He began by picking out a group of people, some historical figures, some people he knew, whom he felt clearly met the standard of self-actualization.  Included in this august group were Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jane Adams, William James, Albert Schweitzer, Benedict Spinoza, and Alduous Huxley, plus 12 unnamed people who were alive at the time Maslow did his research.  He then looked at their biographies, writings, the acts and words of those he knew personally, and so on.  From these sources, he developed a list of qualities that seemed characteristic of these people, as opposed to the great mass of us.

These people were reality-centered, which means they could differentiate what is fake and dishonest from what is real and genuine.  They were problem-centered, meaning they treated life’s difficulties as problems demanding solutions, not as personal troubles to be railed at or surrendered to.  And they had a different perception of means and ends.  They felt that the ends don’t necessarily justify the means, that the means could be ends themselves, and that the means — the journey — was often more important than the ends.

The self-actualizers also had a different way of relating to others.  First, they enjoyed solitude, and were comfortable being alone.    And they enjoyed deeper personal relations with a few close friends and family members, rather than more shallow relationships with many people.

They enjoyed autonomy, a relative independence from physical and social needs.  And they resisted enculturation, that is, they were not susceptible to social pressure to be “well adjusted” or to “fit in” — they were, in fact, nonconformists in the best sense.

They had an unhostile sense of humor — preferring to joke at their own expense, or at the human condition, and never directing their humor at others.  They had a quality he called acceptance of self and others, by which he meant that these people would be more likely to take you as you are than try to change you into what they thought you should be.  This same acceptance applied to their attitudes towards themselves:  If some quality of theirs wasn’t harmful, they let it be, even enjoying it as a personal quirk.  On the other hand, they were often strongly motivated to change negative qualities in themselves that could be changed.  Along with this comes spontaneity and simplicity:  They preferred being themselves rather than being pretentious or artificial.  In fact, for all their nonconformity, he found that they tended to be conventional on the surface, just where less self-actualizing nonconformists tend to be the most dramatic.

Further, they had a sense of humility and respect towards others — something Maslow also called democratic values — meaning that they were open to ethnic and individual variety, even treasuring it.  They had a quality Maslow called human kinship or Gemeinschaftsgefühl social interest, compassion, humanity.  And this was accompanied by a strong ethics, which was spiritual but seldom conventionally religious in nature.

And these people had a certain freshness of appreciation, an ability to see things, even ordinary things, with wonder.  Along with this comes their ability to be creative, inventive, and original.  And, finally, these people tended to have more peak experiences than the average person.  A peak experience is one that takes you out of yourself, that makes you feel very tiny, or very large, to some extent one with life or nature or God.  It gives you a feeling of being a part of the infinite and the eternal.  These experiences tend to leave their mark on a person, change them for the better, and many people actively seek them out.  They are also called mystical experiences, and are an important part of many religious and philosophical traditions.

Maslow doesn’t think that self-actualizers are perfect, of course.  There were several flaws or imperfections he discovered along the way as well:  First, they often suffered considerable anxiety and guilt — but realistic anxiety and guilt, rather than misplaced or neurotic versions.  Some of them were absentminded and overly kind.  And finally, some of them had unexpected moments of ruthlessness, surgical coldness, and loss of humor.

Two other points he makes about these self-actualizers:  Their values were “natural” and seemed to flow effortlessly from their personalities.  And they appeared to transcend many of the dichotomies others accept as being undeniable, such as the differences between the spiritual and the physical, the selfish and the unselfish, and the masculine and the feminine.

Metaneeds and metapathologies

Another way in which Maslow approach the problem of what is self-actualization is to talk about the special, driving needs (B-needs, of course) of the self-actualizers.  They need the following in their lives in order to be happy:

Truth, rather than dishonesty.
Goodness, rather than evil.
Beauty, not ugliness or vulgarity.
Unity, wholeness, and transcendence of opposites, not arbitrariness or forced choices.
Aliveness, not deadness or the mechanization of life.
Uniqueness, not bland uniformity.
Perfection and necessity, not sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident.
Completion, rather than incompleteness.
Justice and order, not injustice and lawlessness.
Simplicity, not unnecessary complexity.
Richness, not environmental impoverishment.
Effortlessness, not strain.
Playfulness, not grim, humorless, drudgery.
Self-sufficiency, not dependency.
Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness.

At first glance, you might think that everyone obviously needs these.  But think:  If you are living through an economic depression or a war, or are living in a ghetto or in rural poverty, do you worry about these issues, or do you worry about getting enough to eat and a roof over your head?  In fact, Maslow believes that much of the what is wrong with the world comes down to the fact that very few people really are interested in these values — not because they are bad people, but because they haven’t even had their basic needs taken care of!

When a self-actualizer doesn’t get these needs fulfilled, they respond with metapathologies — a list of problems as long as the list of metaneeds!  Let me summarize it by saying that, when forced to live without these values, the self-actualizer develops depression, despair, disgust,alienation, and a degree of cynicism.

Maslow hoped that his efforts at describing the self-actualizing person would eventually lead to a “periodic table” of the kinds of qualities, problems, pathologies, and even solutions characteristic of higher levels of human potential.  Over time, he devoted increasing attention, not to his own theory, but to humanistic psychology and the human potentials movement.

Toward the end of his life, he inaugurated what he called the fourth force in psychology:  Freudian and other “depth” psychologies constituted the first force;  Behaviorism was the second force;  His own humanism, including the European existentialists, were the third force.  The fourth force was the transpersonal psychologies which, taking their cue from Eastern philosophies, investigated such things as meditation, higher levels of consciousness, and even parapsychological phenomena.  Perhaps the best known transpersonalist today is Ken Wilber, author of such books as The Atman Project and The History of Everything.

Brief Biography of Mother Teresa of Calcutta

Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa, was born on 26 August 1910, in Skopje, Macedonia, to Albanian heritage. Her father, a well-respected local businessman, died when she was eight years old, leaving her mother, a devoutly religious woman, to open an embroidery and cloth business to support the family. After spending her adolescence deeply involved in parish activities, Agnes left home in September 1928, for the Loreto Convent in Rathfarnam (Dublin), Ireland, where she was admitted as a postulant on October 12 and received the name of Teresa, after her patroness, St. Thérèse of Lisieux.

Agnes was sent by the Loreto order to India and arrived in Calcutta on 6 January 1929. Upon her arrival, she joined the Loreto novitiate in Darjeeling. She made her final profession as a Loreto nun on 24 May 1937, and hereafter was called Mother Teresa. While living in Calcutta during the 1930s and ’40s, she taught in St. Mary’s Bengali Medium School.

On 10 September 1946, on a train journey from Calcutta to Darjeeling, Mother Teresa received what she termed the “call within a call,” which was to give rise to the Missionaries of Charity family of Sisters, Brothers, Fathers, and Co-Workers. The content of this inspiration is revealed in the aim and mission she would give to her new institute: “to quench the infinite thirst of Jesus on the cross for love and souls” by “labouring at the salvation and sanctification of the poorest of the poor.” On October 7, 1950, the new congregation of the Missionaries of Charity was officially erected as a religious institute for the Archdiocese of Calcutta.

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Mother Teresa expanded the work of the Missionaries of Charity both within Calcutta and throughout India. On 1 February 1965, Pope Paul VI granted the Decree of Praise to the Congregation, raising it to pontifical right. The first foundation outside India opened in Cocorote, Venezuela, in 1965. The Society expanded to Europe (the Tor Fiscale suburb of Rome) and Africa (Tabora, Tanzania) in 1968.

From the late 1960s until 1980, the Missionaries of Charity expanded both in their reach across the globe and in their number of members. Mother Teresa opened houses in Australia, the Middle East, and North America, and the first novitiate outside Calcutta in London. In 1979 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. By that same year there were 158 Missionaries of Charity foundations.

The Missionaries of Charity reached Communist countries in 1979 with a house in Zagreb, Craotia, and in 1980 with a house in East Berlin, and continued to expand through the 1980s and 1990s with houses in almost all Communist nations, including 15 foundations in the former Soviet Union. Despite repeated efforts, however, Mother Teresa was never able to open a foundation in China.

Mother Teresa spoke at the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly in October 1985. On Christmas Eve of that year, Mother Teresa opened “Gift of Love” in New York, her first house for AIDS patients. In the coming years, this home would be followed by others, in the United States and elsewhere, devoted specifically for those with AIDS

From the late 1980s through the 1990s, despite increasing health problems, Mother Teresa travelled across the world for the profession of novices, opening of new houses, and service to the poor and disaster-stricken. New communities were founded in South Africa, Albania, Cuba, and war-torn Iraq. By 1997, the Sisters numbered nearly 4,000 members, and were established in almost 600 foundations in 123 countries of the world.

After a summer of travelling to Rome, New York, and Washington, in a weak state of health, Mother Teresa returned to Calcutta in July 1997. At 9:30 PM, on 5 September, Mother Teresa died at the Motherhouse. Her body was transferred to St Thomas’s Church, next to the Loreto convent where she had first arrived nearly 69 years earlier. Hundreds of thousands of people from all classes and all religions, from India and abroad, paid their respects. She received a state funeral on 13 September, her body being taken in procession – on a gun carriage that had also borne the bodies of Mohandas K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru – through the streets of Calcutta. Presidents, prime ministers, queens, and special envoys were present on behalf of countries from all over the world.