English Issues

How are you all? How was your Khmer New Year Holiday? I have been away from this blog for a while, so today I was thinking of bringing this discussion for you as the fresh start of the New Year. I will be showing the differences between Foreword, Preface, and Introduction as I can see a lot of people getting confused when thinking of either of them.You might have written many technical books or academic reports. You might also have written a lot of forewords, prefaces, or introductions. However, when asked “What are the differences between the three?” you may gasp and ask yourself. The following explanation could be helpful.

Foreword (Khmer: បុព្វកថា) refers to the preliminary pages in a technical or academic report. It is written by a distinguish person who is not the author of the work. If we follow the generally accepted definition in publishing, it comes right after the Table of Contents, and the pages are numbered with lower-case Roman numerals, e.g., i, ii, iii, etc., rather than the Arabic numerals used for the text of the book.
Ideally, it’s written by an expert on the subject of the book who says that the author did good job writing about the subject. The foreword generally speaks well of the author. A foreword, as the spelling indicates, is a word that comes before. It’s not a forward, which is a direction, or a foreward, which is a misspelling.

Preface (Khmer: អរម្ភកថា) also refers to the preliminary pages in a technical or academic report or book. It is written by the author. It often gives an overview of how the book came to be written, its intended purpose, and to what extent it covers the topic. It may come before or after the foreword, but it usually comes after and follows the same page numbering system. The preface may also include acknowledgments. If a book has both a Forward and a Preface, the Foreword is always placed first.

Introduction (Khmer: សេចក្តីផ្តើម) is also written by the author (or, sometimes, the editor). It’s an essay that sets up the full topic of a book. It states what the author’s point of view is and may indicate what the reader’s point of view should be. After reading the introduction to find out what’s in the book, the reader can decide whether or not to read it. Since it is part of the text, the pages are numbered with the same numbering system as the text.

Stewart Clark and Graham Pointon, (2003). Word for Word. Oxford University Press. New York



Teacher is the general term for someone whose job it is to teach:

I’d like to go into teaching and get a job as a teacher in an inner city primary or secondary school.Teaching assistants can only ever support the classroom teacher; they can never replace him.


We sometimes use the word tutor instead of teacher to describe somebody who gives personal or private lessons:

My son wasn’t making much progress in school, so I hired a maths tutor to give him private lessons after school.

If you are enrolled as a student in a British university, you will have a personal tutor who provides you with close support throughout your studies and with whom you will have tutorials to discuss aspects of the subject being studied:

There are just six students in my tutorial group and we had a very interesting tutorial on global warming and climate change last week. On all quality distance learning schemes, face-to-face support from trained tutors is essential.


A lecturer is someone who gives a lecture or formal presentation, particularly at a college or university

Dr Gradgrind is our lecturer on the Victorian novel and the course will be taught through a series of lectures and seminars.

Note that a seminar at a college or university is a class for a small group of students to discuss the subject with the lecturer.


In the UK, professor is a university teacher of the highest rank in a subject area:

Professor Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, is one of the most formidable intellects ever to theorise on the origins of the universe.

The first step in an academic carrier is usually lecturer, then senior lecturer, then reader, then eventually perhaps professor.Note that in the US, a professor is a full-time teacher at university. A teacher at secondary school or high school or junior college is never a professor.


In British English, an instructor teaches you on how to learn or improve in a particular skill or sport:

If you want to learn how to drive, you will need a driving instructor. If you want to learn how to fly, you will require a flying instructor. If you intend to ski this winter on the higher slopes, you’ll need a ski instructor.

In the US, an instructor is a university teacher below the rank of assistant professor.


A coach is someone who trains individual sports players or a team. The examples below are taken from tennis and football:

Tim Henman, Britain’s No 1, has a new coach, Paul Anacone, who worked with Pete Sampras for six years. Paul Bracewell, national coach with the England youth teams for the past two years, has resigned.


A trainer can be someone who trains people for a particular job or profession or who trains someone in certain varieties of sport.

In-service teacher trainers are in very great demand here as there is no pre-service training for teachers. If you can get Kevin as your personal fitness trainer, you’ll work on a wide range of strategies and techniques.

n English, in some case, when you ask to buy things for a dozen, they will give you 12 because a Dozen means 12. Yet, if you ask for a Baker’s Dozen, they will give you 13. It means a Baker’s Dozen equals to 13.

In reflection to Khmer (official language of Cambodia), it is also similar in some cases. We also have such units for things that are not really expensive such as fruits, or small animals. Here are some of the examples: corns, orange, papaya, mango, etc., yet not for precious items. For the case of the mentioned items units of collections will be used. Those include មួយដំបរ(Muoy Dambor) which is equal to four, មួយឡូ (Muoy Lo)​ which is equal to twelve; មួយផ្លូន (Muoy Phlon) equivalent to 40, and so on. Similar to the English case of Baker’s Dozen, when Cambodian sell things, they sometimes count 50 items as one PHLON (40). Corns are mostly counted 50 as one Phlon.


With Google becoming the most preferred web search engine, many people, including me, feel that almost everything we doubt about can be answered when Googled at just an eye blink. Google, not to let you down, is trying to make your search even easier from day to day. However, some people are still not aware of the search options available that can just lead you straight away to what you are looking for for just one-button hit.

Here is one example of the Search Options

To see the weather for many U.S. and worldwide cities, type “weather” followed by the city and state, U.S. zip code, or city and country.

Image Image
Here is the result you will get


Go here: http://www.google.com.kh/intl/km/help/features.html#reference to try all these.


1. Meaningful Subject Line
It is extremely important that you use a clear and detailed subject line in the email so that the person receiving the email to knows exactly what your email is about before they open it. A clear and detailed subject line helps the recipient quickly identify your email and know what it is about. The main thing is to make sure that your email is quickly seen as being an important message from a real person.

2. Don’t Shout
Everyone knows that it is bad manners to shout when having a conversation with someone and it also should be avoided when sending emails. Shouting in an email means using all upper case or capital letters for some of the worlds. If you do need to highlight a specific word, it is better to use* at the start and end of the word you want to *emphasize*.

3. Formal or informal
Be careful with the language that you use in your emails. It is always better to use formal words and language when communicating for a business purpose. Shortened words or abbreviations, which are commonly used for SMS or chatting, are not appropriate for formal emails. An email is a kind of formal letter and you should try to follow the convention and style of formal convention and style of formal letters for all your email communication.

4. Attachments
If possible try to cut and paste any attachment into the actual body message of the email and do not send any attachments unless absolutely necessary. Lots of computer viruses can be transmitted though attachments and lots of people now think twice before opening any think twice before opening any attachment that they receive with an email. If you must send an attachment, make sure that the recipient knows about it and the attachment has been virus-scanned.

5. Sending options
It is extremely important to ensure that you use cc and bcc appropriately in your email communication. Everyone included in cc (carbon copy) will know that the others have received the email because all the recipient email addresses will be visible. If you do not wish for all the recipients to see who has received the email, then you should us bcc (blind carbon copy). This option sends the email to multiple recipients, but is received as only being sent to a single recipient. Use cc if you want everyone to know all other recipients, and use bcc if the email is sensitive and you want to keep the multiple recipients hidden from view.

The most important advice is to keep the message you are communicating in emails as easy to understand as you can.

Have fun,
Paul Brown (MA CELTA)

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.)

Single Author

Last name first, followed by author initials.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Two Authors

List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of “and.”

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Three to Six Authors

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.

More Than Six Authors

If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then “et al.,” which stands for “and others.” Remember not to place a period after “et” in “et al.”

Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al. (2001). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44(3), 213-245.

Organization as Author

American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

NOTE: When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster’s, 1993) and (“New Drug,” 1993).

Two or More Works by the Same Author

Use the author’s name for all entries and list the entries by the year (earliest comes first).

Berndt, T.J. (1981).

Berndt, T.J. (1999).

When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends’ influence on students’ adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J., & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name of the third if the first and second authors are the same.

Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 629-654.

Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g.: “Berdnt (1981a) makes similar claims…”

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwards

Cite the publishing information about a book as usual, but cite Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterward (whatever title is applicable) as the chapter of the book.

Funk, R. & Kolln, M. (1998). Introduction. In E.W. Ludlow (Ed.), Understanding English Grammar (pp. 1-2). Needham, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Do you know all English Prepositions?
There will be no one who dares to say <<YES>>.

Here is a list of most English prepositions:

  • aboard
  • about
  • above
  • absent
  • according to
  • across
  • after (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
  • against
  • ahead of
  • all over
  • along
  • alongside
  • amid or amidst
  • among
  • around
  • as (This one can also be asubordinatingconjunction. In other words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).


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