Differences between


ខាងក្រោមនេះជាពាក្យមួយចំនួនដែលចាស់ៗ ព្រមទាំងមនុស្សជាច្រើនទៀតចូលចិត្តប្រើ (ពាក្យកម្ចីពីបារាំង) ហើយក្មេងជំនាន់ក្រោយមួយចំនួនមិនយល់អត្ថន័យ ឬ មិនដឹងថាជាពាក្យអ្វីមកពីប្រភពណា៖

  • mot de passe (ម៉ូ ឌើ ប៉ាស់)៖ ពាក្យសម្ងាត់ (Password/Signal)
    ឧ. ឯងនេះពិតជាមិនយល់ ម៉ូ ឌើ ប៉ាស់ គេមែន។  [Idiot, you don’t understand their signal/password.]
    (ឬ ពេលខ្លះគេនិយមនិយាយកាត់ថា ម៉ូ ឧ. ឯងមិនដឹងថានេះជាម៉ូគេទេអី?)
  • ស្រី/នារី lancer (ឡង់សេ)៖  នារីផ្សព្វផ្សាយ/ស្រីអ្នកផ្សព្វផ្សាយ (Promotion Girl/Launching Girl)
    ឧ. នាងនោះជានារីឡង់សេ ស្រាបៀ (នាងនោះជានារីផ្សព្វផ្សាយស្រាបៀ)  [She is a beer promotion girl.]
    ពាក្យនេះត្រូវបានគេណែនាំឈប់ឲ្យប្រើនាពេលបច្ចុប្បន្ន ដោយសម្អាងថាវាជាពាក្យបង្ហាញនូវការរើសអើងដល់នារីដែលប្រកបមុខរបរនេះ។ ដោយជំនួសមកវិញ គេស្នើឲ្យប្រើ ពាក្យ នារីផ្សព្វផ្សាយ
  • អ្នក courtier (គួធ្យេរ)៖ ឈ្មួញកណ្តាល (middleman or Broker)
    ឧ. កុំទៅជឿគាត់ហ្នឹងអី គាត់គ្រាន់តែជាអ្នកគួធ្យេរហ្នឹង។ [Don’t believe him; he is just a broker.]
  • ចេញ depart (ដេប៉ាត៍)៖ ចេញដំណើរ/ចាប់ផ្តើម (To depart/Start)
    ឧ. គ្រាន់តែមើលការចេញដេប៉ាត៍របស់វា ដឹងតែចាញ់គេបាត់ហើយ។ [By just seeing how he departs/starts I already know he will lose.]
  • élan (អេឡង់)៖ កម្លាំងជំរុញ/អ្វីម្យ៉ាងសម្រាប់ជំរុញការធ្វើអ្វីមួយអោយបានលឿន ឬ ល្អ/ពេលវេលាសម្រាប់ត្រៀមធ្វើអ្វីមួយ/លំហរគ្រប់គ្រានសម្រាប់ធ្វើអ្វីមួយ (momentum, impetus, run-up, space)។
    ឧ. ខ្ញុំលោតមិនបានខ្ពស់សោះ ព្រោះពេលលោតទៅដូចអត់អេឡង់ម៉េចទេ។ [I can’t jump high because it seems I don’t have enough impetus to do it.]
    សូមទោសផង ការពន្យល់សម្រាប់ពាក្យនេះអាចមិនសូវច្បាស់ព្រោះដូចពិបាករកពាក្យដាក់ឲ្យត្រូវណាស់។
  • hors-jeu (អក ហ៊្សើ)៖ ចេញ/ហួសពីកន្លែងដែលបានកំណត់ (Offside)
    ឧ. សុំទោស ខ្ញុំអកហ៊្សើ បាត់ហើយ។ [Sorry, I’ve been offside.]
  • Pré (ប្រេ)៖ ត្រៀម (Prepare) តាមពិតមកពីពាក្យពេញថា Préparer  ឬ Prêt (adj.) ដែលបានត្រៀមជាស្រេច (Ready)
    ឧ. ខ្ញុំមិនទាន់បានប្រេ ផងស្រាប់តែបោះមកបាត់។[I had not prepared for it, when you threw it in/I was not ready when you threw it in. ]

នេះគ្រាន់តែជាពាក្យមួយចំនួនដែលខ្ញុំអាចរកនឹកឃើញ ហើយយល់ពីការប្រើប្រាស់ ហើយដែលខ្ញុំជឿជាក់ថាមានបងប្អូនមួយចំនួនចេះប្រើហើយតែអាចមិនដឹងថាមានន័យយ៉ាងម៉េចឲ្យប្រាកដ ឬ ជាពាក្យមកពីណាសរសេរយ៉ាងម៉េច។ ចំពោះការសរសេរជាសំឡេងខ្មែរនោះក៏មិនប្រាកដថាត្រូវតាមសំឡេងពិតប្រាកដរបស់ភាសាបារាំងនោះដែរ គឺខ្ញុំគ្រាន់តែសរសេរវាឡើងតាមការស្តាប់លឺក្នុងការប្រើប្រាស់ប្រចាំថ្ងៃប៉ុណ្ណោះ។ ដូចនេះបើមានខុសឆ្គង ឬ មិនទំនងត្រង់ណា សូមជួយបន្ថែម និងកែតម្រូវផង ដើម្បីអាចជាផលប្រយោជន៍របស់អ្នកអានទាំងឡាយ។ នៅមានពាក្យច្រើនទៀត ដែលចាស់ៗនិយមប្រើ តែខ្ញុំមិនយកមកនិយាយ ដោយយល់ថាពាក្យទាំងនោះងាយយល់ ហើយយើងដឹងគ្រប់គ្នាថាមិនមែនពាក្យខ្មែរ គឺជាកម្ចីបារាំងតែម្តង ដូចជា ពាក្យ តាបឡូ (ក្ដាខៀន) អូតែល (សណ្ឋាគារ) រ៉ាត់ដ្យូ (វិទ្យុ) កាត (កាត/បៀសន្លឹក) ជាដើម។

These are just a few terms I can recall, understand and use. I believe there are some people who can use any of these but might not know the exact meaning of it and from where the term was derived as well as how it is transliterated into Khmer. Regarding my transliteration here, I don’t guarantee that it is all correct; I just transliterate based on what I hear in daily conversation. If mistakes are found, please kindly leave me a comment so I can correct it for the sake of readers.

Besides the terms listed above, there are still many commonly used terms I don’t include here because I believe that those terms are commonly understood. Those terms may include tableau, hôtel, Radio, carte etc.

រៀបចំដោយ préparé par MPSINFO

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There maybe time when you have to fill in form when there is a need to extend your passport. While filling you may come across the questions about Passport Book and Passport Card. Don’t worry if you don’t know which one is yours. Below is a brief explanation to help you decide which one your is.

Passport Book– Valid if you travel by air, sea and land

Passport Card – This is only valid if you travel by sea and land only. It is limited to travel between the United States and Mexico, the Caribbean, Canada and Bermuda.

Passport Book and Passport Cards – These are both valid for adults for 10 years and 5 years for minors

Passport Book Cost – The first time fee for an adult applicant is $100 and $85 for minors. This includes both the application fee and the execution fee.

Passport Card Cost – $45 for those 16 and over including execution fee and $35 for those under 16.

If you want to learn more, please go to the link below:
http://ezinearticles.com/?Do-You-Need-a-Passport-Book-Or-Passport-Card?&id=1420732

How are you all? How was your Khmer New Year Holiday? I have been away from this blog for a while, so today I was thinking of bringing this discussion for you as the fresh start of the New Year. I will be showing the differences between Foreword, Preface, and Introduction as I can see a lot of people getting confused when thinking of either of them.You might have written many technical books or academic reports. You might also have written a lot of forewords, prefaces, or introductions. However, when asked “What are the differences between the three?” you may gasp and ask yourself. The following explanation could be helpful.

Foreword (Khmer: បុព្វកថា) refers to the preliminary pages in a technical or academic report. It is written by a distinguish person who is not the author of the work. If we follow the generally accepted definition in publishing, it comes right after the Table of Contents, and the pages are numbered with lower-case Roman numerals, e.g., i, ii, iii, etc., rather than the Arabic numerals used for the text of the book.
Ideally, it’s written by an expert on the subject of the book who says that the author did good job writing about the subject. The foreword generally speaks well of the author. A foreword, as the spelling indicates, is a word that comes before. It’s not a forward, which is a direction, or a foreward, which is a misspelling.

Preface (Khmer: អរម្ភកថា) also refers to the preliminary pages in a technical or academic report or book. It is written by the author. It often gives an overview of how the book came to be written, its intended purpose, and to what extent it covers the topic. It may come before or after the foreword, but it usually comes after and follows the same page numbering system. The preface may also include acknowledgments. If a book has both a Forward and a Preface, the Foreword is always placed first.

Introduction (Khmer: សេចក្តីផ្តើម) is also written by the author (or, sometimes, the editor). It’s an essay that sets up the full topic of a book. It states what the author’s point of view is and may indicate what the reader’s point of view should be. After reading the introduction to find out what’s in the book, the reader can decide whether or not to read it. Since it is part of the text, the pages are numbered with the same numbering system as the text.

References:
http://EzineArticles.com/1404851
Stewart Clark and Graham Pointon, (2003). Word for Word. Oxford University Press. New York