focus Paragraph or section lacks a clear focus
Problems with paragraphing
org Organization problems
coh These sentences are not well connected. These ideas do not seem to be related.
trans or tr A transition is needed here. Transitions include the following: nevertheless, in addition, in fact, then, furthermore, as a result, consequently.
weak Sentence is vague or general or states the obvious.
Something has been left out here.
? Point is unclear.
or + Excellent beginning, ending, use of detail, word choice

Sentence Structure:

frag The sentence is not complete. This group of words is a fragment.
NS Not a sentence. Words are left out; syntax is ungrammatical.
RO Two sentences are punctuated as one. This is a run-on sentence.
AWK or K This sentence does not sound right; it lacks smoothness.
// Similar ideas or elements are not expressed in identical grammatical constructions. Sentence contains an error in parallelism. (e.g., The report revealed a growth in sales but that sales had dropped.)
comb These sentences should be combined.
coord/sub Coordination/Subordination problem – Connect ideas by using connectives which express the ideas exactly. (e.g., My grandfather took a long vacation, and his health did not improve.)
Ref A pronoun must refer clearly to the right antecedent. Sentence contains an example of ambiguous reference, general reference, or weak reference. (AMBIGUOUS: The partnership between Bob and Dave ended when he drew the firm’s money from the bank and flew to Brazil. GENERAL: Macbeth’s mind was constantly imagining horrible things and that frightened him. WEAK: When we boarded the plane for Texas, we learned it would take four hours.)
T Verb tense is incorrect or has shifted.
DM Modifier is dangling (e.g., Carrying a heavy pile of books, her foot caught on the steps.).
MM Modifier is misplaced (e.g., I bought a computer for the staff, which gave us trouble.).
Chop Wordy Sentences are too short and choppy. Sentence contains unnecessary repetition or superfluous words.
( ) Specific words to be removed.
Shift Shift in person. (e.g., If a person studies hard in high school, you will have no trouble in college.)
Awk passive or pass Awkward use of passive voice. Use passive voice when the actor is unknown (e.g., The door had been closed before we arrived.) or when it is not desirable to disclose the actor (e.g., A mistake was made in this order.) Awkward: The game was won when a goal was kicked by Jim.


Agree or ag Sentence contains errors in agreement between noun/pronoun, (e.g., The city has their own parade.); noun/verb (There’s three choices for lunch.); pronoun/pronoun (e.g., Each of the students brought their own skates.); pronoun/verb (e.g., Neither of your answers were correct.)
V Verb is incorrect (e.g., The puppy is laying down.).
T Verb is incorrect in tense (e.g.,Suddenly she remembered she promised to meet him at eight.).
Mood Verb form is incorrect, mood (e.g., I wish I was a farmer.).
Case Case of pronoun is incorrect. (e.g., Come skiing with Becky and I.)
Mod Modifier is incorrect. (e.g., Which of the ten photos is more attractive?) (e.g., I feel badly about the broken glass.)

Diction (Word Choice):

Ch or WW Word chosen is not the best in this context.
Red Redundant (e.g., descend down the stairs).
Dic or D Inappropriate word choice; shift from one level of diction to another. (e.g., formal English to informal or to slang.)
Trite/cliche The expression is overused. (e.g., His hands are as cold as ice. They should bury the hatchet.)


cap Capitalization error.
P Punctuation omitted.
P Punctuation incorrect
P Punctuation unnecessary.
sp Spelling error